Congressional Summary

Presidential administrations, especially in the modern era, have depended upon sympathetic majorities in Congress to enact their legislative programs.

If a president's own party controls a single house of Congress, he has a fighting chance to accomplish his goals, but with control in neither the House nor Senate presidential plans seldom go far. Majorities in both houses, of course, vastly increase the prospects of success.

The table below provides the opportunity to observe the growth and decline of party strength in the House and Senate from the Washington administration to the present.

Congress
Years
House
Senate
President
1st
1789-1791
Pro 38
Con 26
Pro 17
Con 9
Washington
(No Party)
2nd
1791-1793
Fed 37
Dem-Rep 33
Fed 16
Dem-Rep 13
Washington
(Federalist)
3rd
1793-1795
Dem-Rep 57
Fed 48
Fed 17
Dem-Rep 13
Washington
(Federalist)
4th
1795-1797
Fed 54
Dem-Rep 52
Fed 19
Dem-Rep 13
Washington
(Federalist)
5th
1797-1799
Fed 58
Dem-Rep 48
Fed 20
Dem-Rep 12
Adams
(Federalist)
6th
1799-1801
Fed 64
Dem-Rep 42
Fed 19
Dem-Rep 13
Adams
(Federalist)
7th
1801-1803
Dem-Rep 69
Fed 36
Dem-Rep 18
Fed 13
Jefferson
(Dem. Rep.)
8th
1803-1805
Dem-Rep 102
Fed 39
Dem-Rep 25
Fed 9
Jefferson
(Dem. Rep.)
9th
1805-1807
Dem-Rep 116
Fed 25
Dem-Rep 27
Fed 7
Jefferson
(Dem. Rep.)
10th
1807-1809
Dem-Rep 118
Fed 24
Dem-Rep 28
Fed 6
Jefferson
(Dem. Rep.)
11th
1809-1811
Dem-Rep 94
Fed 48
Dem-Rep 28
Fed 6
Madison
(Dem. Rep.)
12th
1811-1813
Dem-Rep 108
Fed 36
Dem-Rep 30
Fed 6
Madison
(Dem. Rep.)
13th
1813-1815
Dem-Rep 112
Fed 68
Dem-Rep 27
Fed 9
Madison
(Dem. Rep.)
14th
1815-1817
Dem-Rep 117
Fed 65
Dem-Rep 25
Fed 11
Madison
(Dem. Rep.)
15th
1817-1819
Dem-Rep 141
Fed 42
Dem-Rep 34
Fed 10
Monroe
(Dem. Rep.)
16th
1819-1821
Dem-Rep 156
Fed 27
Dem-Rep 35
Fed 7
Monroe
(Dem. Rep.)
17th
1821-1823
Dem-Rep 158
Fed 25
Dem-Rep 44
Fed 4
Monroe
(Dem. Rep.)
18th
1823-1825
Dem-Rep 187
Fed 26
Dem-Rep 44
Fed 4
Monroe
(Dem. Rep.)
19th
1825-1827
JQA 105
AJ 97
JQA 26
AJ 20
J.Q. Adams
(Dem. Rep.)
20th
1827-1829
AJ 119
JQA 94
AJ 28
JQA 20
J.Q. Adams
(Dem. Rep.)

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Years
House
Senate
President
21st
1829-1831
Dem 139
Natl Rep 74
Dem 26
Natl Rep 22
Jackson
(Democrat)
22nd
1831-1833
Dem 141
Natl Rep 58
Other 14
Dem 25
Natl Rep 21
Other 2
Jackson
(Democrat)
23rd
1833-1835
Dem 147
Anti-Mas 53
Other 60
Dem 20
Natl Rep 20
Other 8
Jackson
(Democrat)
24th
1835-1837
Dem 145
Whig 98
Dem 27
Whig 25
Jackson
(Democrat)
25th
1837-1839
Dem 108
Whig 107
Other 24
Dem 30
Whig 18
Other 4
Van Buren
(Democrat)
26th
1839-1841
Dem 124
Whig 118
Dem 28
Whig 22
Van Buren
(Democrat)
27th
1841-1843
Whig 133
Dem 102
Other 6
Whig 28
Dem 22
28th
1843-1845
Dem 142
Whig 79
Other 1
Whig 28
Dem 25
Tyler
(Whig)
29th
1845-1847
Dem 143
Whig 77
Other 6
Dem 31
Whig 25
Polk
(Democrat)
30th
1847-1849
Whig 115
Dem 108
Other 4
Dem 36
Whig 21
Other 1
Polk
(Democrat)
31st
1849-1851
Dem 112
Whig 109
Other 9
Dem 35
Whig 25
Other 2
Taylor
Fillmore
(Whig)
32nd
1851-1853
Dem 140
Whig 88
Other 5
Dem 35
Whig 24
Other 3
Fillmore
(Whig)
33rd
1853-1855
Dem 159
Whig 71
Other 4
Dem 38
Whig 22
Other 2
Pierce
(Democrat)
34th
1855-1857
Rep 108
Dem 83
Other 43
Dem 40
Rep 15
Other 5
Pierce
(Democrat)
35th
1857-1859
Dem 118
Rep 92
Other 26
Dem 36
Rep 20
Other 8
Buchanan
(Democrat)
36th
1859-1861
Rep 114
Dem 92
Other 31
Dem 36
Rep 26
Other 4
Buchanan
(Democrat)
37th
1861-1863
Rep 105
Dem 43
Other 30
Rep 31
Dem 10
Other 8
Lincoln
(Republican)
38th
1863-1865
Rep 102
Dem 75
Other 9
Rep 36
Dem 12
Lincoln
(Republican)
39th
1865-1867
Union 149
Dem 42
Union 42
Dem 10
Lincoln
A. Johnson
(Republican)
40th
1867-1869
Rep 143
Dem 49
Rep 42
Dem 11
A. Johnson
(Republican)

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Years
House
Senate
President
41st
1869-1871
Rep 149
Dem 63
Rep 56
Dem 11
Grant
(Republican)
42nd
1871-1873
Rep 139
Dem 104
Rep 52
Dem 17
Other 5
Grant
(Republican)
43rd
1873-1875
Rep 194
Dem 92
Other 14
Rep 49
Dem 19
Other 5
Grant
(Republican)
44th
1875-1877
Dem 182
Rep 103
Other 14
Rep 45
Dem 29
Other 2
Grant
(Republican)
45th
1877-1879
Dem 155
Rep 136
Rep 39
Dem 36
Other 1
Hayes
(Republican)
46th
1879-1881
Dem 141
Rep 132
Other 14
Dem 42
Rep 33
Other 1
Hayes
(Republican)
47th
1881-1883
Rep 147
Dem 135
Other 11
Dem 37
Rep 37
Other 1
Garfield
Arthur
(Republican)
48th
1883-1885
Dem 197
Rep 118
Other 10
Rep 38
Dem 36
Other 2
Arthur
(Republican)
49th
1885-1887
Dem 183
Rep 140
Other 2
Rep 43
Dem 34
Cleveland
(Democrat)
50th
1887-1889
Dem 169
Rep 152
Other 4
Rep 39
Dem 37
Cleveland
(Democrat)
51st
1889-1891
Rep 166
Dem 159
Rep 39
Dem 37
B. Harrison
(Republican)
52nd
1891-1893
Dem 235
Rep 188
Other 9
Rep 47
Dem 39
Other 2
B. Harrison
(Republican)
53rd
1893-1895
Dem 218
Rep 126
Other 11
Dem 44
Rep 38
Other 3
Cleveland
(Democrat)
54th
1895-1897
Rep 244
Dem 105
Other 7
Rep 43
Dem 39
Other 6
Cleveland
(Democrat)
55th
1897-1899
Rep 204
Dem 113
Other 40
Rep 47
Dem 34
Other 7
McKinley
(Republican)
56th
1899-1901
Rep 185
Dem 163
Other 9
Rep 53
Dem 26
Other 8
McKinley
(Republican)
57th
1901-1903
Rep 197
Dem 151
Other 9
Rep 55
Dem 31
Other 4
McKinley
T. Roosevelt
(Republican)
58th
1903-1905
Rep 208
Dem 178
Rep 57
Dem 33
T. Roosevelt
(Republican)
59th
1905-1907
Rep 250
Dem 136
Rep 57
Dem 33
T. Roosevelt
(Republican)
60th
1907-1909
Rep 222
Dem 164
Rep 61
Dem 31
T. Roosevelt
(Republican)

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Years
House
Senate
President
61st
1909-1911
Rep 219
Dem 172
Rep 61
Dem 32
Taft
(Republican)
62nd
1911-1913
Dem 228
Rep 161
Rep 51
Dem 41
Taft
(Republican)
63rd
1913-1915
Dem 291
Rep 127
Other 17
Dem 51
Rep 44
Other 1
Wilson
(Democrat)
64th
1915-1917
Dem 230
Rep 196
Other 9
Dem 56
Rep 40
Wilson
(Democrat)
65th
1917-1919
Dem 216
Rep 210
Other 6
Dem 53
Rep 42
Wilson
(Democrat)
66th
1919-1921
Rep 240
Dem 190
Other 3
Rep 49
Dem 47
Wilson
(Democrat)
1921-1923
Rep 301
Dem 131
Other 1
Rep 59
Dem 37
Harding
(Republican)
68th
1923-1925
Rep 225
Dem 205
Other 5
Rep 51
Dem 43
Other 2
Coolidge
(Republican)
69th
1925-1927
Rep 247
Dem 183
Other 4
Rep 56
Dem 39
Other 1
Coolidge
(Republican)
70th
1927-1929
Rep 237
Dem 195
Other 3
Rep 49
Dem 46
Other 1
Coolidge
(Republican)
71st
1929-1931
Rep 267
Dem 167
Other 1
Rep 56
Dem 39
Other 1
Hoover
(Republican)
72nd
1931-1333
Dem 220
Rep 214
Other 1
Rep 48
Dem 47
Other 1
Hoover
(Republican)
73rd
1933-1935
Dem 310
Rep 117
Other 5
Dem 60
Rep 35
Other 1
F. Roosevelt
(Democrat)
74th
1935-1937
Dem 319
Rep 103
Other 10
Dem 69
Rep 25
Other 2
F. Roosevelt
(Democrat)
75th
1937-1939
Dem 331
Rep 89
Other 13
Dem 76
Rep 16
Other 4
F. Roosevelt
(Democrat)
76th
1939-1941
Dem 261
Rep 164
Other 4
Dem 69
Rep 23
Other 4
F. Roosevelt
(Democrat)
77th
1941-1943
Dem 268
Rep 162
Other 5
Dem 66
Rep 28
Other 2
F. Roosevelt
(Democrat)
78th
1943-1945
Dem 218
Rep 208
Other 4
Dem 58
Rep 37
Other 1
F. Roosevelt
(Democrat)
79th
1945-1947
Dem 242
Rep 190
Other 2
Dem 56
Rep 38
Other 1
F. Roosevelt
Truman
(Democrat)
80th
1947-1949
Rep 245
Dem 188
Other 1
Rep 51
Dem 45
Truman
(Democrat)

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Years
House
Senate
President
81st
1949-1951
Dem 263
Rep 171
Other 1
Dem 54
Rep 42
Truman
(Democrat)
82nd
1951-1953
Dem 234
Rep 199
Other 1
Dem 49
Rep 47
Truman
(Democrat)
83rd
1953-1955
Rep 221
Dem 211
Other 1
Rep 48
Dem 47
Other 1
Eisenhower
(Republican)
84th
1955-1957
Dem 232
Rep 203
Dem 48
Rep 47
Other 1
---- Selected Quotes ----

Quotes regarding Congressional Summary.

By Mark Twain
Reader, suppose you were an idiot. And suppose you were a member of Congress. But I repeat myself.