The following is a representative survey of conflicts between Native Americans and Europeans over three centuries.
|Following an initial period of peaceful relations, a 12-year conflict left many natives and colonists dead, but the remaining colonists were victorious.
|Connecticut and Rhode Island
|The death of a colonist eventually led to the immolation of 600-700 natives. The remainder were sold into slavery in Bermuda.
|King Philip's War
|Massachusetts and Rhode Island
|Philip's attempt to drive out the settlers, beginning at Swansea, Massachusetts, led to slaughter on both sides and his own death.
|Arizona and New Mexico
|Led by Popé, Pueblo Indians threw off the Spanish yoke and lived independently for 12 years. The Spanish reconquered in 1692.
|French and Indian War
|A contest between France and Britain for possession of North America. For various motivations, most Algonquian tribes allied with the French; the Iroquois with the British.
|The Tuscarora under chief Hancock attacked several settlements, killing settlers and destroying farms. In 1713, James Moore and Yamasee warriors defeated the raiders.
|An Indian confederation led by the Yamasee came close to exterminating white settlement in their region.
|Ohio River Valley
|Warrior chief Pontiac and a large alliance drove out the British at every post except Detroit. After besieging the fort for five months, they withdrew to find food for the winter.
|Lord Dunmore's War
|Southern Ohio River Valley
|Alarmed tribes raided a wave of traders and settlers. Dunmore, governor of Virginia, sent in 3,000 soldiers and defeated 1,000 natives.
|Old Northwest Warfare
|Ohio and Indiana
|Following two humiliating defeats at the hands of native warriors, the Americans won a decisive victory under "Mad Anthony" Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
|Battle of Tippecanoe
|Wabash and Tippecanoe rivers, Indiana
|The Prophet, brother of Shawnee chief Tecumseh, attacked Indiana Territory Gov. William Henry Harrison's force at dawn. After hand-to-hand combat, the natives fled.
|Georgia and Alabama
|Militiamen under Andrew Jackson broke the power of Creek raiders who had attacked Fort Mims and massacred settlers. They relinquished a vast land tract.
|First Seminole War
|The Seminole, defending runaway slaves and their land in Florida, fought Andrew Jackson's force. Jackson failed to subdue them, but forced Spain to relinquish the territory.
|Black Hawk War
|Northern Illinois and Southwestern Wisconsin
|The last native conflict in the area, led by Chief Black Hawk. An unsuccessful attempt by the Sauk and Fox tribes to move back to their homeland.
|Second Seminole War
|Under Chief Osceola, the Seminole resumed fighting for their land. They retreated into the Everglades; Osceola was captured. They were nearly eliminated.
|Arizona and New Mexico
|Persistent fighting between the Navajo and the U.S. Army led to their expulsion and incarceration on an inhospitable reservation far from their homeland.
|Wyoming, Minnesota and South Dakota
|Moved across the Mississippi into "Indian Country," the Sioux under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse resisted waves of settlers and prospectors, to keep their hunting grounds.
|Rogue River War
|Attacks on Rogue River Valley Indian people were meant to start a war that would employ miners unable to work because of a drought. Indian survivors were forced out to reservations.
|Third Seminole War
|Under Chief Billy Bowlegs, the Seminole mounted their final stand against the U.S. Bowlegs surrendered; he and others were deported to Indian Territory in Oklahoma.
|New Mexico, Arizona, Texas and Mexico
|Rejecting reservation life, Apaches under Geronimo, Cochise and others staged hundreds of attacks on outposts. Geronimo finally surrendered in 1886; others fought on until 1900.
|The Ute nation rose episodically against the whites. Mormon settlers were relentlessly overtaking Ute lands and exhausting their resources and wildlife.
|Northern California and Southern Oregon
|Captain Jack and followers fled from their hardscrabble reservation to the lava beds of Tule Lake, where they held out against soldiers for six months. He was hanged.
|Red River War
|William T. Sherman led a campaign of more than 14 battles against the Arapaho, Comanche, Cheyenne and Kiowa tribes, who eventually surrendered.
|Battle of the Rosebud
|Rosebud Creek, Southern Montana
|Lakota and Cheyenne under Crazy Horse turned back soldiers commanded by General George Crook, thereby cutting off reinforcements that might have aided Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
|Battle of the Little Bighorn
|George A. Custer and 250 soldiers under his immediate command confronted Sioux warriors on the Little Bighorn River and were wiped out in the ensuing fight.
|Nez Percé War
|Oregon, Idaho, Montana
|After fighting to keep their home in Wallowa Valley, Chief Joseph led his people on a 1,700-mile retreat to Canada. They surrendered near the border to Nelson Miles' soldiers.
|The Wounded Knee Massacre
|Following the killing of Sitting Bull , Big Foot took command of the final band of fighting Lakota (Sioux). They were trapped at Wounded Knee Creek and destroyed by the U.S. Army.