Treaty of Paris (1763)

The Treaty of Paris of 1763 (along with the companion Treaty of Hubertusburg) ended the Seven Years’ War, the American counterpart of which was the French and Indian War.

In a nutshell, Britain emerged as the world’s leading colonial empire. Her possessions stretched from India to Africa to the West Indies to North America. The British shocked knowledgeable people of the day by choosing to take the barren wasteland of Canada from France, rather than the prosperous West Indian sugar islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique.

Britain made many gains, but they could have received more. George III, new to the throne, was fearful of the power amassed by Secretary of State William Pitt. The king replaced him and pushed peace negotiations, preferring to give back recently taken territories in order to conclude the conflict.

The following partial summary gives an indication of the worldwide scope of the changes brought by these treaties:

FRANCE

North America

Ceded Canada and all North American claims east of the Mississippi River to Britain, but not New Orleans

North America

Ceded west Louisiana (most of the present-day central United States) and New Orleans to Spain

North America

Retained islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon (valuable fishing sites off Newfoundland)

West Indies

Received back from Britain the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique

West Indies

Ceded Grenada and Grenadines to Britain

India

Retained most posts, but lost influence to Britain, particularly in Bengal

Africa

Ceded Senegal to Britain

Mediterranean

Ceded interest in Minorca to Britain

Europe

Agreed to withdraw armies from the German states

SPAIN

North America

Ceded Florida to Britain

North America

Received west Louisiana and New Orleans from France

West Indies

Received Cuba and the Philippines from Britain

Mediterranean

Ceded interest in Minorca to Britain

BRITAIN

North America

Received Canada from France

North America

Received Florida from Spain

West Indies

Ceded recently taken Guadeloupe and Martinique back to France

West Indies

Ceded recently taken Cuba and the Philippines to Spain

West Indies

Received Grenada and the Grenadines from France

India

Received extensive rights from France

Africa

Received Senegal from France

Mediterranean

Received Minorca from France and Spain


See French and Indian War Timeline.

- - - Books You May Like Include: ----

The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War by Fred Anderson.
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The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America by Colin G. Calloway.
In 1763, with the peace treaty that ended the French and Indian War, France and Spain handed over all the territory east of the Mississippi, as well a...