Arizona was first explored by the Spanish. A Franciscan priest named Marcos de Niza reached Arizona in 1539, looking for the fabulous seven cities. The first Catholic mission was established in 1692. A fort was established in 1752 at Tubac and another in 1776 at Tucson. When Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, Arizona became part of the new nation. United States forces took control of the region during the Mexican War, and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo afterwards gave the United States permanent ownership. American control was extended in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase. During the Civil War, sentiments in Arizona tended towards the Confederacy, since many of its residents had come from that section. The Confederacy even declared a Confederate Territory of Arizona, but could do nothing militarily to obtain any advantage. The movement towards statehood gained momentum towards the end of the 19th century. In 1905, Congress considered creating one state that would have included both Arizona and New Mexico, but Arizona refused to go along. In 1910, the state drew up a constitution, but President Taft vetoed it because of its provision for the recall of judges, a component of the Oregon System. Arizona redrafted a constitution that eliminated the recall provision and became the 48th state in 1912. Soon thereafter, they reinserted the recall provision in their constitution. Arizona has produced two Republican candidates for president, both unsuccessful. Barry Goldwater ran in 1964 and John McCain in 2008.