The Treaty of Paris of 1763 (along with the companion Treaty of Hubertusburg) ended the Seven Years’ War, the American counterpart of which was the French and Indian War.
In a nutshell, Britain emerged as the world’s leading colonial empire. Her possessions stretched from India to Africa to the West Indies to North America. The British shocked knowledgeable people of the day by choosing to take the barren wasteland of Canada from France, rather than the prosperous West Indian sugar islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique.
Britain made many gains, but they could have received more. George III, new to the throne, was fearful of the power amassed by Secretary of State William Pitt. The king replaced him and pushed peace negotiations, preferring to give back recently taken territories in order to conclude the conflict.
The following partial summary gives an indication of the worldwide scope of the changes brought by these treaties:
and all North American claims east of the Mississippi River
but not New Orleans
Ceded west Louisiana
(most of the present-day central United States)
and New Orleans to Spain
Retained islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon
(valuable fishing sites off Newfoundland)
Received back from Britain
the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique