During the second half of the 19th century, White Horse (Tsen-tainte), a chief of the Kiowa Tribe, was noted for his audacity. In his teens, he showed extraordinary proficiency as a novice fighter, and became an exceptional horseman. White Horse was a man to be reckoned with. Little is known of his early life, except that as a young warrior he repeatedly proved his worth in battle. The whites judged White Horse to be the “most dangerous” man among the Kiowa. Attacks on the Navajo During the 1860s, White Horse was involved in numerous raids against reservation and free Navajo (their traditional enemies) in and around the area of the reservation near Fort Sumner in present-day New Mexico. On the Canadian River near the Texas-New Mexico line, and on the Pecos River, White Horse and a war party of his followers attacked Navajo villages, killing and scalping. Attacks on white settlers and soldiers White Horse's violent attitude towards the white invaders was evident in the fact that he participated in the treaty council at Medicine Lodge Creek, yet chose to remain free and on the warpath rather than at peace on a reservation. During the 1870s, he gained stature and notoriety because of his raids into Texas, attacking white settlements at will. His bravado was so brazen that in June 1870, he and his followers staged a raid on Fort Sill, Oklahoma, reportedly stealing 73 mules. Also in 1870, White Horse attacked a stagecoach en route to Fort Concho. In May 1871, White Horse participated in the Warren Wagon Train Raid, in which he helped carry the fatally wounded brave, Hau-tau, to safety during the fight. In April 1872, he and Chief Big Bow attacked another wagon train in what is now east-central Texas. Seventeen Mexican teamsters died during that raid. White Horse was wounded during a heated skirmish with Captain N. Cooney's 9th Cavalry troops while returning from that sortie. Following the release of Santana and Big Tree from prison, White Horse was peaceful for a while, but stayed with the war party. In June 1874, he participated in the Second Battle of Adobe Walls, along with an intertribal war party. When Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie's troops attacked Indian encampments in Palo Duro Canyon on September 27, White Horse and his cohorts were there. Because of the withering attack, White Horse and his supporters laid down their arms at Fort Sill in April 1875. Imprisonment White Horse was incarcerated along with other warriors at St. Augustine, Florida, because of the atrocities he had committed. In 1878, he and the others were released and returned to the reservation near Fort Sill. White Horse lived there in peace with his family for the remainder of his life. The old warrior was buried on the reservation when he died in 1892.