Naval War with France

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The undeclared naval war with France took place in two phases. The first was between 1798 and 1800 during the administration of John Adams. The United States built its navy from three ships to 55, canceled its treaties with France, commissioned privateers, and authorized its merchant marine to repel any assault by force.

The Convention of Peace, Commerce and Navigation, negotiated in September 1800, brought the conflict to an end. American claims for millions of dollars in damages were one of the factors leading to the Louisiana Purchase, under which the United States government assumed responsibility for the claims of its citizens.

The second phase came during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, when Napoleon Bonaparte issued a series of decrees between 1806 and 1810, which resulted in the French seizing and confiscating American ships and cargoes. The claims from this period were not entirely settled by Congress until 1925.

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