An insurrection smoldered in the Philippines prior to the Spanish-American War. The insurgents` leader, José Rizal, was captured and executed by Spanish authorities. His successor, Emilio Aguinaldo, then in exile, was helped to return by Commodore George Dewey following the latter`s triumph at Manila Bay.
In August 1898, many Filipinos rejoiced at the collapse of Spanish power and assumed that independence would soon follow. Despite Filipino aspirations, Dewey advised Washington that the native republican element was a minority and a strong hand was needed to prevent the islands from falling into other hands.
Dewey’s caution was not without foundation. Germany had been in contact with Spain in hopes of purchasing the islands. Tensions rose to such a height that the German Far Eastern fleet threatened Dewey’s smaller navy prior to the events at Manila Bay. Only the timely appearance of British ships enabled the Americans to continue their conquest.*
In late 1898, with the fighting stopped and peace negotiations underway, President McKinley faced the dilemma of deciding what to do with the Philippines. Imperialist and anti-imperialist forces at home voiced their opinions.
The president hesitated and turned to prayer. He concluded that the United States should accept control of the Philippines to educate and Christianize the natives — overlooking the fact that the overwhelming majority of the islands’ population was Roman Catholic.
Filipino republican leaders were incensed with the prospect of a continuing American presence in their homeland. Fighting broke out in February 1899, following the shooting of three Filipinos by U.S. soldiers in suburban Manila.
The insurrection raged for more than two years, exacting a far higher toll than the Spanish-American War. More than 120,000 American soldiers served in the conflict; at least 4,200 were killed. More than 16,000 Filipino fighters died.
Atrocities were common and committed by both sides. Further, a terrible toll was taken among the civilian populace with an estimated 200,000 succumbing to famine and disease.
The Filipino forces were no match for the Americans in open combat, but more than held their own in guerilla warfare. The insurgent forces split their command among a number of regional theaters, forcing the Americans to conduct extremely difficult operations in a variety of jungle locations.
In March 1901, Aguinaldo was captured. He realized that the insurgent cause was ultimately hopeless and called for an end to resistance. Nevertheless, sporadic fighting continued in the outlying areas until early 1902.
*The British had no interest in seeing the U.S. become a power in the Pacific, but realized that war with Germany was on the horizon and desired strong relations with America.
---- Selected Quotes ----
Quotes regarding Insurrection in the Philippines: Independence from America as well as Spain.
By Henry Cabot Lodge
Our opponents put forward as their chief objection that we have robbed these people of their liberty, and have taken them and hold them in defiance of the doctrine of the Declaration of Independence in regard to the consent of the governed. As to liberty, they have never had it, and have none now, except when we give it to them protected by the flag and armies of the United States. The taking of the Philippines does not violate the principles of the Declaration of Independence, but will spread them among a people who have never known liberty.
Comments by the first Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (1900)
By Marquis de Lafayette
When the government violates the people's rights, insurrection is, for the people and for each portion of the people, the most sacred of the rights and the most indispensable of duties.
Speech to the Constituent Assembly, 1790
- - - Books You May Like Include: ----
The War Lovers: Roosevelt, Lodge, Hearst, and the Rush to Empire, 1898 by Evan Thomas.
On February 15th, 1898, the American ship USS Maine mysteriously exploded in the Havana Harbor. News of the blast quickly reached U.S. shores, where i...
Unfamiliar Fishes by Sarah Vowell.
From the bestselling author of The Wordy Shipmates, an examination of Hawaii, the place where Manifest Destiny got a sunburn. Many think of 1776 as t...
Fighting for American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars by Kristin L. Hoganson.
Blending the insights of gender studies with foreign-policy studies, this groundbreaking book offers a new understanding of American imperialism dur...
A War of Frontier and Empire: The Philippine-American War, 1899-1902 by David J. Silbey.
It has been termed an insurgency, a revolution, a guerrilla war, and a conventional war. As David J. Silbey demonstrates in this taut, compelling hist...
The Savage Wars Of Peace: Small Wars And The Rise Of American Power by Max Boot.
America's "small wars," "imperial wars," or, as the Pentagon now terms them, "low-intensity conflicts," have played an essential but little-appreciate...
In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines by Stanley Karnow.
In a swiftly paced, brilliantly vivid narrative, Karnow focuses on the relationship that has existed between the two nations since the United States a...
Honor in the Dust: Theodore Roosevelt, War in the Philippines, and the Rise and Fall of America's Imperial Dream by Gregg Jones.
Honor in the Dust is a gripping account of one of the most pivotal moments in U.S. history: America’s high-spirited drive for empire at the dawn of t...