In English history, the Glorious Revolution refers to the accession of William and Mary to the throne in a "bloodless revolution." In 1685, Charles II was succeeded as king by his brother, James II. The Stuart line had always been suspect because of their adherence to Roman Catholicism, a matter of great concern in largely Protestant England. James made a bad situation worse by appointing numerous Catholics to high office and by fathering a son who, presumably, would be Catholic and the future monarch. Protestant opponents of the king issued an invitation to William of Orange, a Dutch prince, and his wife Mary, the eldest daughter of James II to come to England. William answered the call and brought with him an army; James' forces quickly deserted and joined those of William. James fled to France. Parliament granted the crown jointly to William and Mary in exchange for their adherence of a Bill of Rights. The Glorious Revolution was another step in the shift of power from the monarchy to Parliament. The curbing of royal power was noted with interest in the American colonies. See English Monarchs.