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The stockholders' spirits were further dampened when they noticed that their chief rival, the Virginia Company of London, had established a settlement at Jamestown, where a lucrative tobacco economy began to develop in the late 1600s. Sir Edwin Sandys, a major figure in the Plymouth group, hoped to salvage some of his investment by convincing James I that he should allow a group of religious dissenters to settle on the company’s lands.
Earlier, in 1608, group of religious separatists from the English town of Scrooby had moved quietly to Amsterdam and Leiden, Holland, in search of religious freedom. Their journeys earned them the name "Pilgrim."
Despite their enjoyment of religious toleration, the separatists were denied entry to the lucrative Dutch guilds and found it hard to support themselves. They also were concerned about the fact that their children were growing up as young Dutch people and not adhering to their parents’ religious dictates.
Separatist leaders secured a land grant from Sandys in 1620, and embarked in the ship Mayflower for the New World in September. They arrived in November initially at Provincetown Bay and later settled at what became Plymouth.
The Pilgrims had intended to settle near the mouth of the Hudson River, but had been blown off course in stormy weather. Since they were well outside the confines of Virginia, the colonists sought to legitimize their venture by forming the Mayflower Compact.
The Pilgrims established their first home in an empty Indian village where the inhabitants had recently been wiped out by an epidemic. With typical religious certainty, the leaders concluded that God had cleared the site for his chosen people. During the first winter, adverse weather conditions and lack of food took a heavy toll among the original 102 colonists.
In 1621, the Pilgrims concluded a peace treaty with chief Massasoit of the neighboring Wampanoag tribe. The natives provided critical instruction on adaptation to the new environment, particularly in the cultivation of corn. That fall, following a successful harvest, the Pilgrims feasted with the Wampanoag in the first Thanksgiving celebration.
The Plymouth economy developed around trade in fish and furs. The sandy, rocky soil had made agriculture difficult, but basic crops were grown successfully.
Plymouth was never a prosperous settlement, but the religiously faithful were content to be ignored by English officials and left to direct their own affairs.
Plymouth remained a separate political entity until it was absorbed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 1691.
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Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War by Nathaniel Philbrick.
How did America begin? From this simple question, acclaimed author Nathaniel Philbrick sets out on an extraordinary journey to understand the truth be...
Plymouth Plantation 1620 - 1647 by William Bradford.
The colony founded by the Pilgrims that formed Plymouth Colony or Plymouth Plantation was one of the first permanent English settlements, along with J...
The Name of War: King Philip's War and the Origins of American Identity by Jill Lepore.
King Philip's War, the excruciating racial war--colonists against Indians--that erupted in New England in 1675, was, in proportion to population, the ...
Thanksgiving: The Pilgrims' First Year in America by Glenn Alan Cheney.
Thanksgiving is not a book about a holiday. It s about something that a few dozen survivors did after a year of suffering, death, struggle, and courag...
The Adventurous Life of Myles Standish and the Amazing-but-True Survival Story of Plymouth Colony by Cheryl Harness.
Say hello to Myles Standish, a fiery man with short legs and an even shorter temper. When he got mad his face turned as red as his hair, earning him t...
A Great and Godly Adventure by Godfrey Hodgson.
The first Thanksgiving wasn't celebrated with turkey (there weren't any in Massachusetts) and didn't take place in 1621. Indeed the settlers, who pr...
Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and Their World: A New History by Nick Bunker.
Backed by privateering aristocrats, London merchants, and xenophobic politicians, they were sectarian religious radicals who lived double and treble l...
The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony by James Deetz.
James Deetz, who until his death was a leading expert on the archaeology of Plymouth Colony, and his wife, cultural historian Patricia Scott Deetz, gi...