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The Border States were slave states that shared a border with free states to the north. These included Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri. As a rule, the Border States maintained strong cultural ties with the South, but important economic relationships with the North.
All remained in the Union after the outbreak of the Civil War, except Virginia. Sentiment in that state's 40 western counties, however, was strongly against secession. In 1861 those counties seceded from Virginia – forming West Virginia, which formally entered the Union in 1863.
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Civil War Maryland Stories from the Old Line State by Richard P. Cox.
As a border state with ties to both the Union and the Confederacy, Maryland played a unique role in the war. This series of essays on Maryland's invol...
The South vs. The South: How Anti-Confederate Southerners Shaped the Course of the Civil War by William W. Freehling.
Why did the Confederacy lose the Civil War? Most historians point to the larger number of Union troops, or to the North's greater industrial might. No...