The undeclared naval war with France took place in two phases. The first was between 1798 and 1800 during the administration of John Adams. The United States built its navy from three ships to 55, canceled its treaties with France, commissioned privateers, and authorized its merchant marine to repel any assault by force.
The Convention of Peace, Commerce and Navigation, negotiated in September 1800, brought the conflict to an end. American claims for millions of dollars in damages were one of the factors leading to the Louisiana Purchase, under which the United States government assumed responsibility for the claims of its citizens.
The second phase came during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, when Napoleon Bonaparte issued a series of decrees between 1806 and 1810, which resulted in the French seizing and confiscating American ships and cargoes. The claims from this period were not entirely settled by Congress until 1925.
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The Art of the Gold Rush - Saint Francis Hotel
Saint Francis Hotel Harrison Eastman (1823-1886), Saint Francis Hotel, Corner of Clay and Dupont Streets, 1849, watercolor on paper mounted on cardboard. California Historical Society, gift of Templeton Crocker. © 1998 Oakland Museum of California.
... WilliamOhio Constitutional Convention of 1802Ohio Country Francis Dunlavy was born in Virginia in 1761. He moved with his family to western Pennsylvania ten years later. He played an active part in the American Revolution, participating in ...
... Contact US Lowell, Francis Lowell, Francis Cabot (1775-1817) Manufacturer: Francis Cabot Lowell was born on April 7, 1775, in Newburyport, Massachusetts. After graduating from Harvard in 1793, he worked in his uncle's mercantile firm. He ...