The United States constitution declared the Supreme Court to be the apex of the federal judicial system, but left the details of organization to be worked out later. In the first session of Congress under the new constitution, a basic layout was established. According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, state and federal court systems were given different roles, and the federal system was divided into a series of districts. At that time, each district was presided over by one of the Supreme Court justices, but this was later abandoned.
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What Kind of Nation: Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and the Epic Struggle to Create a United States by James F. Simon.
The bitter and protracted struggle between President Thomas Jefferson and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall defined the basic constitutional r...