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In 1921, the international Reparations Commission was established to determine the scope of damages caused by Germany during World War I. An unrealistically high total of $33 billion was forced on the defeated nation, but it managed to make an initial installment payment in September 1921.
However, dire economic conditions in Germany led to default and the imposition of a moratorium by the creditor nations, which hoped that a temporary cessation of payments would allow the German economy to recover so that payments could be resumed. France decided not to wait for the the moratorium to expire and in January 1923, occupied the vital German industrial region in the Ruhr Valley in hope of extracting payment from what they regarded to be a reluctant debtor.
The United States had not been a party to the Versailles Treaty and, therefore, was not a recipient of reparations. Official government policy during the 1920s held that there was no relationship between Germany’s ability to pay reparations and the Allies’ ability to discharge their war debts to the U.S. However, the deepening economic crisis in Germany and international tensions created by the French invasion induced the Coolidge administration to try to impose some order on the growing chaos.
An international committee was formed with two representatives each from Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, and the United States. The American delegates were financier Charles G. Dawes, who headed the effort, and financier Owen D. Young. A report was issued in April 1924 that called for the following:
Dawes was successful in removing some of the ambiguity from the reparations process, but not all of it. Germany was able to meet its obligations for a number of years, but that success was due in large part to the infusion of capital from the United States. Market panics and depression would later require that another effort at reforming the process be made. (See the Young Plan of 1929.)
See other foreign affairs activities during the Coolidge administration.
... Orville In 1929, Beman Gates Dawes and Bertie Burr Dawes established the Dawes Arboretum near Jacksontown, Ohio. The Dawes hoped “to give pleasure to the public and education to the youth; and to increase the general knowledge and love of ...
Along with John Kuser of the Cook College of Rutgers University, the Dawes Arboretum remedied the problem of Metasequoia inbreeding depression. This was a problem caused by all original Arnold Arboretum trees being genetically derived from very ...
Title: Dawes Act Author: U.S. Government Year Published: 1887 The Dawes Act or General Allotment Act of 1887 Source: United States Statutes at Large 24:388-91 CHAP. 119.--An act to provide for the allotment of lands in severalty to Indians ...