The Twenty-One Demands

In a classic act of opportunism, the Japanese government used the distraction of the World War I in Europe to press China secretly for a series of concessions. It was made clear that if China were to refuse these demands, war with Japan would be the result.

The demands, originally 21 in number, included such matters as the following:

  1. The Japanese would henceforth receive coal and iron mining rights in central China and the Shantung Peninsula
  2. The Japanese would be granted extensive rights in a number of Chinese port cities
  3. China would be required to end the practice of leasing land and facilities to other nations
  4. Control over certain Chinese internal affairs, such as financial and police matters, would be assigned to Japanese agents.
The Chinese skillfully drew out the negotiations, but were eventually forced into agreeing to a revised set of demands in May 1915. Pressure from the United States and Britain was responsible for removing the most odious provision—that of installing Japanese advisory agents.

China also managed to get in the last word by directing its legislature to refuse to ratify the agreements formally incorporating the demands; Japan chose to ignore this inaction.

The revised Twenty-One Demands enabled Japan to establish a position in China similar to that enjoyed by the other great powers. However, by threatening China with war, the Japanese provoked the Chinese people's continued hatred and the other Allies' growing suspicion.


See World War I Time Table.

Off-site search results for "The Twenty-One Demands"...

The Twenties
... History of Israel Other Links About Historycentral Advertise Contact US The Twenties 1920-1929 1920- Prohibition Begins 1920- Participation in League Rejected 1920- Women's Suffrage 1921- Immigration Quota 1921- Bureau of Budget 1922 ...
http://www.historycentral.com/TheTwenties/Index.html

DOMESTIC MEDICINE - Chapter Twenty-one
... moisture on the skin, greatly promotes the eruption; but, when the skin is dry, the eruption is both more painful and dangerous. SOMETIMES this is a primary disease; but it is much oftener only a symptom of some other malady, as the small-pox ...
http://www.americanrevolution.org/med21.html

The "Roaring Twenties".
They were too busy enjoying the prosperity of the 1920s. American industry had expanded during the Great War, making weapons, uniforms, equipment etc. This expansion continued after the war, helped by America's massive reserves of raw materials ...
http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/america/roaringtwenties.htm

Popular Pages

More Info